Duncan Laurence was the firm favorite before the show, and the little-known Dutch singer received rapturous applause in the arena after performing his song "Arcade." He confirmed victory after scoring strongly with both the public and national juries, beating Italy and Russia to the title.
"This is to dreaming big. This is to music first, always," he said after being confirmed as winner -- the first victor his country has had since 1975. The United Kingdom, by contrast, slumped to the bottom spot.
The contest also featured a performance from American superstar Madonna, and a crowd-pleasing segment that saw previous winners sing hit songs from the competition's history.
Madonna had a message of her own, featuring dancers with both Palestinian and Israeli flags on their backs.
The contest will next head to the Netherlands, with the winning nation taking over hosting duties for a year. The country's victory is its fifth in total, joining the UK, France and Luxembourg in the all-time ranks. Only Ireland and Sweden, which the Netherlands topped for the title, have won more contests.
Here's a look at a few of the other big moments from a memorable show.
Iceland's heavy metal entry
Perhaps the most eagerly-anticipated contestants of the night, Icelandic synth-bondage-metal group Hatari held true to their appeal with a shouty and strobe-ridden performance.